What Is Tracheostomy Procedure

What is a tracheostomy?
An artificial opening is created in the throat. This procedure is done to assist the patient in breathing or create an alternate airway. It is one of the most common procedures for people who have stayed in the ICU or patients on ventilator support.

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What are the indications for tracheostomy? There are a lot of reasons why this procedure is needed:
1. Whenever there’s an obstruction in breathing. Diseases such as cancer of the larynx and laryngeal edema often require tracheostomy.
2. When a patient is unable to remove any respiratory restrictions. The procedure allows suctioning of the secretions.
3. If the patient has respiratory insufficiency, such as chronic lung diseases, it helps in oxygen ventilation.
4. Prophylactic measures or patients on prolonged mechanical ventilation via endotracheal tube.
5. To gain access to the airway for general anesthesia or as precautionary anesthesia for patients who have undergone extensive neck surgery.

Common types of tracheostomy procedures:
1. Emergency
2. Elective
3. Permanent
4. Percutaneous
5. Mini

Different types of tubes used for this procedure:
1. Cuffed
2. Non-cuffed
3. Double lumen tubes
4. Tubes with speaking valves
5. Metallic tubes

This procedure can also be classified as either high, mid, or low. Depending on the level at which it is inserted into the trachea.


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